Episode 449: Tips on how to survive the Mesozoic


Episode 449: Tips on how to survive a dinosaur encounter. Steve Brusatte joins to debate a brand new guide with tips about survive within the Mesozoic. We additionally share two new dinosaurs, a spinosaurid from Spain and a peculiar theropod from China


  • There’s a brand new spinosaurid dinosaur, Protathlitis cinctorrensis, that’s estimated to be 10–11m (33–36ft) lengthy supply
  • A brand new small theropod was named Migmanychion laiyang for its peculiar hand claws supply


Steve Brusatte, a paleontologist, paleontology advisor for Jurassic World, and creator of quite a lot of paleontology books. He’s additionally the knowledgeable reviewer for a brand new Nationwide Geographic Youngsters guide by Stephanie Warren Drimmer, known as “Tips on how to Survive within the Age of Dinosaurs”


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Paleo Pins: Diversity Expansion

The dinosaur of the day: Claosaurus

  • Hadrosauroid that lived within the Late Cretaceous in what’s now Kansas, U.S. (Niobrara Formation)
  • Most likely seemed considerably much like Edmontosaurus, and had a duck invoice, and lengthy tail
  • Herbivorous, most likely walked on two legs and stood on all fours to graze meals
  • Laborious to know the way massive it was, as a result of there usually are not that many fossils, however Tom Holtz estimated it to be about 12 ft (3.7 m) lengthy
  • Initially named by Marsh in 1872 as Hadrosaurus agilis
  • In 1890 renamed to Claosaurus agilis (discovered to be too totally different from Hadrosaurus)
  • Kind species is Claosaurus agilis
  • Genus identify means “damaged lizard”, refers back to the approach the fossils have been discovered
  • Discovered within the Niobrara Formation in Kansas, U.S.
  • Probably that the Claosaurus specimen died on shore and acquired washed out to sea
  • Discovered elements of the cranium and an articulated skeleton
  • O.C. Marsh wrote: “The cranium of Claosaurus is lengthy and slim, with the facial portion particularly produced”
  • Additionally wrote: “[…] the cranium reveals a blunt, rugose muzzle”
  • Lots of the bones discovered are crushed and flattened
  • Fossils discovered embrace vertebrae, elements of the chest and shoulder, elements of the arms, elements of the pelvis, elements of the legs and elements of the toes
  • There have been two different Claosaurus species, however these are not thought-about legitimate
  • Marsh named Claosaurus annectens in 1892, primarily based on two skeletons discovered within the Lance Formation (which later grew to become Anatosaurus, then Edmontosaurus)
  • In 1903, G. R. Wieland named Claosaurus affinis, primarily based on three toe bones discovered within the Pierre Shale in South Dakota (discovered together with fossils from a large sea turtle)
  • The fossils acquired combined up with Claosaurus agilis
  • In 1948 Joseph Gregory discovered three toe bones related in measurement within the Yale collections that seemed prefer it got here from the Pierre Shale, however didn’t reassign the species (it was older in age and too fragmentary)
  • In 2004, Jack Horner and others discovered Claosaurus affinis to be doubtful
  • In 1940, Claosaurus was described partially by its broad, leaf-like enamel. Walter Coombs Jr. in 1988 stated Claosaurus must be redefined primarily based on one thing apart from enamel traits
  • In 2011, when Albert Prieto-Marquez discovered Hadrosaurus to be a sound dinosaur, additionally discovered Claosaurus agilis to be legitimate
  • What makes Claosaurus distinctive is that the size of its deltopectoral crest (a ridge on the entrance of the higher arm) is lower than 48% the size of the humerus, in addition to particulars within the ilium (a part of the pelvis)
  • Gastroliths regarded as present in Claosaurus, however turned out to most definitely be gravel that washed in after the person died. Additionally seems it was an Edmontosaurus specimen discovered with the “gastroliths,” not Claosaurus (when Barnum Brown discovered the specimen in 1900, Edmontosaurus was thought-about to be Claosaurus)

Enjoyable Reality:

sense of odor would have been very helpful for herbivorous dinosaurs, not simply those who spent their time looking and/or scavenging. Herbivores like ornithopods, Ankylosaurus, and the therizinosaur Erlikosaurus all probably had a superb sense of odor.

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